As an important damping component, rubber shock absorbers have been widely used in various machinery, automobiles, railway locomotives, water vehicles, airplanes and other aircraft. It can be said that where vibration isolation is needed, rubber shock absorbers are needed. Rubber shock absorbers are widely used because they give full play to the following advantages:
Rubber has high elasticity and viscoelasticity. Compared with steel, rubber has large elastic deformation and small elastic modulus. The impact stiffness of rubber is greater than the dynamic stiffness, and the dynamic stiffness is greater than the static stiffness, which is conducive to reducing impact and dynamic deformation. The stress-strain curve is an elliptical hysteresis line, and its area is equal to the vibration energy (damping) converted into heat in each vibration cycle, which can be adjusted by formula design; rubber is an incompressible material (Poisson's ratio 0.5), and the shape of rubber It can be selected freely, and the hardness can be adjusted by formula design, which can meet the rigidity and strength requirements in different directions.
Advantages of rubber shock absorbers:
1. The shape of the rubber shock absorber can be chosen arbitrarily. By rationally designing the shock absorber components, the stiffness of the shock absorber in the up and down, left and right, and front and rear directions can be obtained, which greatly simplifies the structure of the shock absorber.
2. Rubber and metal can be firmly joined together.
3. Simple structure, convenient use and maintenance, almost no maintenance, no wear and corrosion, no oil lubrication, insensitive to water and dust, no sudden damage during use, safe and reliable use, low cost, and long service life.
4. The shape can be determined freely, and the hardness can be controlled by adjusting the composition of the rubber formula, which can meet the rigidity and strength requirements in all directions;
5. Large internal friction and good damping effect, which is conducive to passing through the resonance zone and attenuating high-frequency vibration and noise; the elastic modulus is much smaller than that of metal, which can produce greater elastic deformation; there is no sliding part and easy to maintain;
6. Light weight, convenient installation and disassembly.
Due to the above characteristics, rubber shock absorbers are widely used in the bogies of locomotive running parts. Rubber shock absorbers for locomotives are mainly used to bear compressive stress, shear stress and torque, and bear the combined action of two or more stresses at the same time. Various rubber shock absorbers have special properties and play an important role. With the increase in the speed of railway locomotives, the power effect on the railway line has increased sharply, resulting in serious wear and tear of the railway line, tires and running parts of the locomotive. Therefore, rubber shock absorbers are widely used.